|Last week PNB announced that it was the victim of fraud amounting to more than Rs. 11,000 Crores. While this was not foreseeable, the story has been unravelling. PNB has fallen victim to other cases of fraud in the past. In fact, it began disclosing fraudulent transactions in January that are associated with the current case. Jewellers and traders of precious metals are considered risky borrowers, yet a large part of its loan book is linked to these entities.
The bank wasn’t defrauded overnight. A deeper investigation indicates that the fraud has been ongoing for seven years. To understand what transpired, it is important to analyse the instruments and mechanisms involved. Lenders who want to borrow foreign currency (for import/ export) often find that credit facilities are cheaper abroad and may not be subject to currency fluctuations. To do this, they approach Indian banks who offer them a LoU (Letter of Undertaking) in exchange for collateral (security). Using these securities, the Indian bank then guarantees the foreign bank repayment of the loan it extends to the borrower.
PNB claims that no collateral was taken in exchange for these LoUs. Additionally, none of these transactions were recorded and there appears to be an unspoken understanding between some bank officials and the borrowers. This implies collusion on multiple levels and a systemic failure of the bank, its auditors, and the regulator.
Effectively, this has opened a Pandora’s box and leaves room for more discoveries of fraud. Ideally, this should result in greater scrutiny and tighter regulation. From a corrective standpoint, it is likely that there will be the integration of systems within banks so that all transactions are recorded. In particular, PNB may not be recapitalized.